Long Tandem Arrays of Cassandra Retroelements and Their Role in Genome Dynamics in Plants.

Retrotransposable element widely distributed and diverse in eukaryotes. the number of copies they rise through the reverse-transcription-mediated propagation, while they can be lost through the process of recombination, resulting in rearrangements of the genome. We previously identified groups of structurally uniform comprehensive retrotransposon where no member containing the gag, pol, or internal domain ENV.

Due to lack of protein-coding capacity, these groups are non-autonomous replication, even if the transcriptionally active. The Cassandra elements included in the non-autonomous group called terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). This brings 5S RNA sequence with conserved RNA polymerase (pol) III promoter and terminator in the long terminal repeat (ltrs). Here, we identified several extended tandem array of retrotransposon Cassandra in different plant species, including ferns.

At least 12 copies ltrs repeated (as a tandem unit) and an internal domain which (as a spacer), gives a pattern that resembles a cell 5S rRNA genes, were identified. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a specific chromosomal pattern of retrotransposon Cassandra with leading grouping in and around 5S rDNA locus.

Secondary structures of RNA retroelement Cassandra is expected to form a super-loop, in which two ltrs complement each other and can start a local recombination, which leads to a tandem array element Cassandra. The structure preserved for Cassandra retroelements array of different species. We speculate that recombination events is similar to 5S rRNA genes may explain the wide variation in the number of copies of Cassandra. Likewise, organizations 5S rRNA gene sequence is highly variable in flowering plants; part of what is taken for 5S variations in gene copy may be variations in the amount of Cassandra. The role of the remains of Cassandra 5S order to be established.

DL-Maleic acid (Toxilic acid)

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D-Glucuronic acid, free acid

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ICG acid

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Salicylic acid

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Sorbic acid

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Succinic acid

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Anacardic Acid

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Valproic Acid

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Ginkgolic acid

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Mucic acid

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Nalidixic Acid

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EUR 172

Nalidixic Acid

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Neochlorogenic acid

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Neochlorogenic acid

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Oxolinic acid

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Oxolinic acid

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Lactobionic acid

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Mycophenolic Acid

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EUR 212

Mycophenolic Acid

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Pipemidic acid

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Pipemidic acid

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Pseudomonic acid

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Pseudomonic acid

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Zoledronic Acid

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EUR 229

Retinoic acid

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EUR 126

Levomefolic acid

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EUR 231

Minodronic acid

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Folic acid

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Pirinixic acid

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Folinic acid

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Lipoic acid

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Ethylmalonic acid

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Octanoic acid

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(-)-Aspartic acid

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Asparagusic acid

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Chenodeoxycholic Acid

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Glyoxalic acid

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Benzenebutyric acid

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Pamidronic acid

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Risedronic acid

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Tranexamic acid

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Salicylic acid

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Lithocholic acid

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Ellagic acid

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Etidronic acid

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Tolfenamic Acid

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Nalidixic acid

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Mycophenolic acid

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Niflumic acid

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Ibandronic acid

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Cyclamic acid

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Mefenamic acid

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Hyaluronic acid

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Eicosapentaenoic Acid

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Azelaic acid

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Carglumic Acid

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Fenofibric acid

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Betulinic acid

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Valproic acid

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Gadopentetic acid

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Arundic Acid

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Medronic acid

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Arachidonic acid

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Aminomalonic acid

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Urocanic acid

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Hydroxypyruvic acid

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Elaidic acid

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Mevalonic acid

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Argininic acid

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Paullinic acid

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Indolelactic acid

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Eicosadienoic acid

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Bovinic acid

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Ursocholic acid

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Hydroxyphenyllactic acid

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Oxoadipic acid

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Dihydrofolic acid

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Homogentisic acid

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Ureidopropionic acid

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EUR 153

Citraconic acid

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Hexacosanoic acid

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Aminoadipic acid

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Nicotinuric acid

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Petroselinic acid

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Guanidinosuccinic acid

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Imidazoleacetic acid

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Obeticholic acid

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Bempedoic acid

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Eicosatetraynoic acid

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Pentacosanoic acid

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Glycodeoxycholic Acid

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Phosphonoacetic acid

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Oseltamivir (acid)

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Fusidic acid

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Fusidic acid

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Hydrochloric acid

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Benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid

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Benzenepentacarboxylic Acid

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Kynurenic acid

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Quinolinic acid

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Spaglumic Acid

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Docosatrienoic Acid

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Vanilpyruvic acid

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Bucloxic acid

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Methylmalonic acid

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Fuchsin acid

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Gallic acid

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Chlorogenic acid

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Ferulic acid

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Ginkgolic Acid

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Gambogic Acid

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Shikimic acid

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Ursolic acid

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Oleanolic Acid

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Orotic acid

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Hyodeoxycholic acid

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Caffeic acid

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Glycyrrhizic acid

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Asiatic acid

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Nordihydroguaiaretic acid

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Benzoic acid

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Echinocystic acid

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Corosolic acid

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Protocatechuic acid

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Caftaric acid

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Cholic acid

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Syringic acid

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Pachymic acid

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Homovanillic acid

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Succinic acid

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Cichoric Acid

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Roburic acid

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Gallic acid

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Rosmarinic acid

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Deoxycholic acid

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Deacetylasperulosidic Acid

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Cinnamic acid

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Maslinic acid

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Carnosic acid

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(+)-Usnic acid

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Vanillic acid

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Neochlorogenic acid

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Linoleic acid

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Isoferulic acid

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Cryptochlorogenic acid

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Phytic acid

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Lithospermic acid

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Palmitic acid

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Quillaic acid

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Glycocholic acid

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Glycoursodeoxycholic acid

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Citric acid

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Oleic acid

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EUR 299

Betulonic acid

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EUR 126

Kaurenoic acid

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Polygalic acid

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Ursonic acid

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Oleanonic acid

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Gibberellic acid

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Artemisic acid

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Chebulagic acid

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Veratric acid

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EUR 113

Anacardic Acid

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EUR 234

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid

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EUR 119

Chebulinic acid

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EUR 883

Myristic acid

HY-N2041 1g
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Palmitelaidic Acid

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EUR 119

Dihydrocaffeic acid

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EUR 108

Dehydrotrametenolic acid

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EUR 379

Nervonic acid

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EUR 142

Dehydropachymic acid

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EUR 247

Dihydroartemisinic acid

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EUR 142

Gambogellic acid

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Gambogenic acid

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Pentanoic acid

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Triglochinic acid

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Angelic acid

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