What is a Retrovirus?

Retroviruses are viruses that consist of a single thread of RNA and not DNA, these retroviruses infect cells and form DNA replicas of RNA using the reverse transcriptase enzyme. Retroviruses belong to the family Retrofiridae. The most famous retrovirus is HIV, HIV attacks cells of the immune system .

Viruses are sheathed , diameter of 90-120 nm, its genome contains a copy of the duplicate RNA weighted molecule High -stranded single with a polarity the same as the viral mRNA. 

Virions contain the reverse transcriptase enzyme (RNA  DNA). The replicating virus originates from a copy of proviral DNA on the inside of the infected cell . Fixed host infected by chronic . Leukemia and viruses sarcoma animals and humans are included into the group ‘s . Retrovir us is also related to AIDS. HIV enters the interior of the host cell preceded by a complex process. Interaction of several proteins. 

This virus requires approximately two receptors in CD4 target cells as the main receptor and the receptor, chemokine receptors. Gp120 binds to CD4 with the host cell when the virus infects the first time. The bond changes the gp120 conformation, so that the chemokine receptor is given to the host cell. 

This bond can affect GP41. Gp41 will chain the fusion of the virus in the target cell membrane, so that the capsid can enter the cytoplasm of the host cell. The viral genome in the form of RNA is transcribed back into DNA in the cytoplasm. The first RT enzyme will make single-stranded DNA complementary to RNA. 

The RNase-H enzyme of the RNA virus is replaced by synthesizing the second strand of DNA, so that it forms a double stranded DNA. The enzyme integrase integrates viral DNA in a random way in the DNA of the host cell after being experienced by noncovalent circularization. LTR viruses play a role as promoters of viral gene expression.

Transcription occurs with the help of transcription factors from the host cell, including Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kb) and Nuclear Factor activated T Cell (NF-AT). The precursor protein 55kDa will be cut into all parts of the gag sub unit protein p17, p24, p7 and p9. 

Pol protein is a precursor form of RT, RNase, protease and integrase proteins. Protein decline of the pol protein immediately in the container from the core of the latest viruses. The gp160 env precursor protein is translated from the ssRNA transcript. The gp160 precursor will undergo the division of cellular enzymes in the golgi apparatus into mature proteins gp41 and gp 120.

HIV Life cycle

Full virions are arranged with cytoplasmic host cells near the edge of the membrane. The compiled core virus will budding on the surface of the infected cell membrane, which will carry the envelope component in the form of a host cell membrane along with the protein envelope virus .

How does the disease mechanism work ?

HIV virus can cause AIDS does not directly appear symptoms of infection in humans. The virus takes 5-10 years to show symptoms, during this time, there are several stages of infection until HIV and then develops into AIDS.

  1. The first stage
  • HIV can enter the human body to become antibodies in the blood.  
  • People with HIV looked and felt healthy.      
  • HIV tests have not been able to detect the virus.      
  • This stage will last for 2 weeks to 6 months.      
  1. Second stage
  • HIV begins to develop in the body.      
  • HIV testing can be detected.      
  • Presence of virus because antibodies began to be formed.      
  • Patients look healthy and healthy for 5-10 years. Depending on endurance, the average sufferer can last for 8 years.      
  1. Third phase
  • At this stage, it appears that the patient is confirmed to be HIV positive with a declining immune system.      
  • Start symptoms of opportunistic infections, for example such as swollen lymph glands or diarrhea continuously.      
  • Generally this stage lasts for 1 month, depending on the patient’s immune system.      
  1. AIDS
  • At this stage the patient is clearly suffering from AIDS      
  • The immune system drops dramatically      
  • Various other diseases (opportunistic infections) that cause the condition to get worse      

So at this stage, patients who suffer must be immediately taken to the hospital to undergo antiretroviral virus (ARV) therapy. Treap ARV can control the HIV virus in the body so that the impact of the virus can be suppressed. HIV can actually be controlled as early as possible so that it can reduce the chances of AIDS symptoms. 

It is better to do a blood check immediately as early as possible, especially for those who are at high risk, for example for those who use narcotics with syringes, who frequently change partners and who have sex without using contraception.

How can we treat?

Handling HIV and AIDS infections obviously can not only rely on handling from a medical perspective, but also requires attention from behavioral factors. Alternative medicine such as the use of aroma massage therapy, and acupuncture. 

The use of herbal medicines developed in China. Astralagus membrancus has the function of enhancing immunity, Lanicera Japonica and Hericum Perforatum function to inhibit HIV.

Bitter melbon has the function of abortifum which contains anti-HIV substances that can reduce the occurrence of HIV transfer, not only that this drug can also reduce symptoms of diarrhea and night sweats. 

It’s just that the use of this herbal medicine can not be used outside because of limited testing and time. This drug testing is also done on patients who are also limited so it needs further testing in order to be widely used .

What is a Papovavirus 

Papovavirus is one of the viruses of human and animals containing DNA circumference strand double . Virus This includes virus papillomavirus (warts) that is most great produce tumors.

Virus papovavirus has a size smaller 45-55 n m, the virus is to be resistant to the ether , having symmetry cubic with 72 capsomeres and hold heat . Papovavirus known as viral papillomas are often called ( warts ) and Viru s diisola the of the network of brain leukoencephalopathy multifocal progressive or recipient of transplant kidneys functioning immune depressed .

While the animals are papillomas , polioma , and vir us bervakuola . Virus me mpunyai cycle of growth is very slow , inducing sinte sis DNA of cells , and replicates in the nucleus. Papovavirus can cause infection latent , chronic host’s natural , and can download ginduksi tumor at some spasies animals .

Image of electron micrograph transfer from HIV-1 virions (green) derived from cultured lymphocytes and rounded bumps on the cell surface representing the virion assembly site.

The strategy of the virus to execute the prote in expression function varies. P rotein v irus help the host enzymes replicate the viral genome.

In most cases (picornaviruses, reoviruses, and herpesviruses ) viral proteins play a role in replicating viral genomes, but require the assistance of host proteins. Example genus virus in animals and humans can be classified by types as follows :

1DNA Double Strand 
 AdenovirusDisease channel breathing , some cause tumors in animals are limited
 PavovirusPapillomas ( warts in humans , cancer seviks increase ), polioma (tumors on the animal specified )
 PoxvirusSmallpox (smallpox), vaccinia ( smallpox cow )
 HerpesvirusHerpes simplex one ( wound on around the mouth ), herpes simplex two ( sores on the tool genitals ), varicella zoster ( chickenpox water)
 Single Strand 
 ParvovirusIn order to grow , parvovirus must together with adenovirus at the time of infecting the cells of the host
2RNA strand Ganda 
 ReovirusCause infection tract respiratory and gastroenteritis
 Single Strand 
 Which functions as an ambassador RNA (mRNA) 
 TogavirusRubelia virus ; yellow fever virus
 PicomavirusPoliovirus; rhinovirus ( common cold ); enteric virus ( intestinal virus )
 Which functions as a template for mRNA 
 ParamyxovirusMeasles , mumps
 OrthomyxovirusInfluenza virus
 Which functions as a template for DNA synthesis 
 RetrovirusRNA tumor viruses ( eg leukemia viruses ); HIV (AIDS virus).

Protein VPI 83 kDa identic, 58 kDa VP2 protein , except   VP1 has 227 containing residues . Genome is a DNA strand tun ggal 5.6 kb linear.

Virus autonomous , H1, contains 5176 bases , sem entara parvovirus disability , AAV-2 contains 4675 bases . Parvovirus autonomous mengenka psidasi strands of DNA to mRNA is virus disabilities tend of DNA from both polarities into virions were separated and the frequency of the same .

Human Parvovirus life cycle

Parvovirus genus beelike the basis of autonomous within the cell to divide themselves by quickly . Parvovirus human B19 included in the genus this , so the virus panlekopenia felinum and parvovirus kaninum , both are pathogens that are very serious of diseases of animals .

This genus virus has a defective member , always relying on the adenovirus virus for replication . Viruses are associated adeno is human is not associated with a disease.

Human Parvovirus structure
(Kaufmann B., Simpson A.A., Rossmann M.G (2004)

Capsid papovaviride who tert Usun cube symmetric not have a sheath . Virion size of the line middle between 45-55 nm . The virus reproduces itself in the nucleus of infected cells .

There are two generations of viruses Papillo da n virus polyoma . Virus DNA was extracted by viral papilloma and polyoma . The virus is m empunyai power infective   and also has the ability to stimulate the occurrence of disease tumor.

How does a Papovirus infection occur ?

Polyoma virus

Virus polyoma is a virus that is spread among animals due to pollution d ith feces and urine . This virus can cause transformation of primary hamster embryo cells, baby hamsters kipney ce lls 21 and 3 T3 cells derived from rat animals .

Polyoma virus structure

Although the virus does not ever obtained from cells that undergo transformation with imunofluorescent antibody technique always be known to the tumor antigen (T antigen) in the nucleus and transplantation antigens contained in the membranes of the cytoplasm .

Virus polyoma will agglutinate cells of blood merah marmot and species at a temperature of 40º C premises n -binding receptor on neuraminidase.

Simian Vacuolating Virus SV 40

Virus SV has 40 results culture cell renal rhesus and can lead to changes in pathological in the cell. But there are cell renal vang meni mbulkan CPE with m embentuk vacuoles mainly on membrane core.

The virus SV 40 ‘s have the ability to stimulate the T tumors in baby hamster and hold transformation of cells are derived from human , hamster and monkey . Group viruses polyoma obtained in patients with the disease who undergo transplant kidney.